1. How demanding is the tour – what is the terrain like, are there any springs along the way, etc.
2. What weather conditions are expected – If it is winter or you expect bad weather, you will definitely need more equipment.
3. How much comfort do you want in nature and what are your needs – Some people do not like to miss anything, while others are quite satisfied with the minimum.
Rule number 3
It takes three seconds to make a decision, three minutes the brain can do without oxygen without permanent damage, three hours a person can survive in extreme conditions, three days can survive without water and three weeks without food.
Improvised hot water bottle
Our body has a “boiler” constantly on, the urine is constantly heated, and thus energy is wasted. It would be a pity to discard such one thermal energy uselessly in a situation when our life is endangered and we need heat. In extreme conditions, in order to warm our body or sleeping bag, we should urinate into a plastic bottle, which “crumples”, and before use, blows to form or into a water bottle, a plastic bag (tightly closed). We place this temporary heat source under the armpit or in the bottom of the sleeping bag. With such a “thermophore” a person can warm up for an hour or two, which can be the difference between life and death.
Astro foil is one very useful detail in personal equipment and should be owned by every mountaineer. It does not take up much space 10×10 cm, and weighs only 65 grams. It has found an extraordinary application in both rescue and mountaineering. It is a polyvinyl base on which a layer of aluminum has been applied, which repels cold well and retains body heat. The foil is made so that one side is silver and the other is gold. It is very important, if you already have astro foil, that you use it properly. In extreme cold, the silver side turns towards the body, and in order to protect it from the sun’s radiation, the opposite is done. So, when you want to warm up – the silver side should be facing the body, and if you want to protect yourself from the heat and it is hot, turn the foil upside down – turn the gold side towards the body. The downside is that it is very easy to split, so it is usually only possible to use it once. There are also slightly better quality and thicker astro foils, which can be used multiple times.